Building a Formal Arabic Ontology (Invited Paper)

Mustafa Jarrar
In proceedings of the Experts Meeting on Arabic Ontologies and Semantic Networks. Alecso, Arab League. Tunis, July 26-28, 2011.

Keywords: Arabic Ontology, Arabic Lexical Semantics, Arabic WordNet, WordNet, FrameNet, Gloss, Concept, Arabic Upper Level Ontology, Arabic Top Level Ontology, Arabic Core Ontology
@inproceedings{BFAO11 ,
author = {Mustafa Jarrar},
title = {Building a Formal Arabic Ontology (Invited Paper)},
booktitile={Proceedings of the Experts Meeting on Arabic Ontologies and Semantic Networks},
year = {2011},
publisher={Alecso, Arab League},
url = {}

Towards A Methodology For Building Ontologies -Classify By Properties. (In Arabic)

Jamal Daher, Mustafa Jarrar
In proceedings of the 3rd Palestinian International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (PICCIT 2010). Hebron, Palestine. March 2010.

Abstract: The Internet and the open connectivity environment created a strong demand for the sharing of data semantics. Ontologies are increasingly becoming essential for computer science applications. Organizations are beginning to view them as useful machine-process semantics for many application areas, such as ecommerce, bioinformation, software and data engineering. Ontology engineering is a shared understanding of a certain domain, represented formally in a computer resource. By sharing an ontology, autonomous and distributed applicator can meaningfully communicate to exchange data and make transactions interoperate independently of their internal technologies. The meaning in an ontology is typically specified through the sub and the super type of a certain concept/class. As we will discuss and explain in this article, this way of specifying the meaning of a certain thing (using sub/super types) is indeed difficult and complex. This because one has to investigate whether these sub/super types are true in reality, not only for applications at hand. In this article we propose a new methodology of specifying the meaning of a certain thing. In other words, instead of classifying arbitrarily, we propose to use properties as classifiers. We claim that our methodology is easier to use and it leads to more ontological consistency.
@inproceedings{ DJ10,
author = {Jamal Daher and Mustafa Jarrar},
title = {Towards a Methodology for Building Ontologies -Classify by Properties. (in Arabic)},
year = {2010},
address = {Hebron, Palestine},
month = {March},
url = {}

Towards The Notion Of Gloss, And The Adoption Of Linguistic Resources In Formal Ontology Engineering

Mustafa Jarrar
In proceedings of the 15th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2006). Edinburgh, Scotland. Pages 497-503. ACM Press. ISBN: 1595933239. May 2006.

Abstract: In this paper, we (first) introduce the notion of gloss for ontology engineering purposes. We propose that each vocabulary in an ontology should have a gloss. A gloss basically is an informal description of the meaning of a vocabulary that is supposed to render factual and critical knowledge to understanding a concept, but that are unreasonable or very difficult to formalize and/or articulate formally. We present a set of guidelines on what should and should not be provided in a gloss. (Second), we propose to incorporate linguistic resources in the ontology engineering process. We clarify the importance of using lexical resources as a ”consensus reference” in ontology engineering, and so enabling the adoption of the glosses found is these resources. A linguistic resource (i.e. its list of terms and their definitions) shall be seen as a shared vocabulary space for ontologies. We present an ontology engineering software tool (called DogmaModeler), and illustrate its support of reusing of WordNet’s terms and glosses in ontology modeling.
Keywords: Ontology, Formal ontology engineering, Lexical semantics, Gloss, WordNet, Ontologies and WordNet, DogmaModeler.
@inproceedings{ TNG06,
author = {Mustafa Jarrar},
title = {Towards the notion of gloss, and the adoption of linguistic resources in formal ontology engineering},
booktitile={Proceedings of the 15th international conference on World Wide Web (WWW2006)},
year = {2006},
publisher={ACM Press, New York, NY},
address={Edinburgh, Scotland},
url = {}

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